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Old 02-02-2006, 07:00 AM   #1
brraverishhh

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Thank you FSG for this wonderful historical article.
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Old 04-24-2006, 06:49 AM   #2
PhillipHer

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Default VADUKU KARUNADAR
VADUKU KARUNADAR

INTRODUCTION :

In Indian History, the part of Vadukus are very much important due to their contribution to radical change in the existed social system like Mughals . It is strategic importance to know about the origin of ‘Vaduku Karunadar’ who effected the modified version of tamil culture into so called Vedhic culture by Vedhic Pratogonists and transformed it to North as well as south of Indian subcontinent. They only created the artificial Sanskrit language and its literature (100 ACE – 300 ACE in Tamil Krantha script) from Prakritham with the influence of tamil which was further adapted by ‘Guptas’ (800 ACE in Nagari Script) dynasty of North India. Let us see Vaduku’s history through Archeology & literary proofs.

VADUKUS ORIGIN :

Almost all the Megolithic structures (Old Stone Age-Timeline 7000 BCE-4000 BCE) of India are in South India. Out of 1400, 1116 Nos. in TamilNadu & Karnataka and remaining in Anthra, Kalinga(Orissa) and Bengal.(1). This conforms human migration happened from South to North and not North to South.

Megolithic sites of Tamil Nadu’s Kottralai Aaru, Nagari Aaru & Chengleput district, Karnataka’s Thaara vadu, Belgam (Velakam), Beejappur, Kulparka (Kal Porukki), Raichur & Bellari (Vallarai) districts,Anthra’s Mahboobnagar, Karnool district, Naallamalai/Nalakondal (Nalakonda), Chiththur & Nellur Districts are evident for this.(2) Tamil Nadu’s ‘Savvathumalai’ contains more of them which has not been excavated fully but stopped and some scholars(3) are insisting to explore more while Indian Government follows step motherly attitude since tamil Nadu’s sites are earlier than all.

The use of Iron (Iron Age) originated during 4000 BCE in South India (4) (Adicha Nallur’s Iron tools,Tirunelveli & Karnataka’s Them Paranthala excavations-Then Paranthalai). This is further conformed by Bengal Historien T.P. Chakkara barthy (5)and other North Indian historiens (6) O. P. Akarwal, Hari Narayan and G.P. Joshi.

Karnataka’s Thunkapatthirai river Delda ‘Death Person Urns’ fully resembles Adichanallur one where the latter is the earliest one.(7)

This further conforms that from ‘Kumari Kandam’ people migrated towards North.


KODUNTAMIL VADUKU :

When in Kumari Kandam, Kerala & Tamil Nadu an organized version of Koduntamil made (chenthamil), in North India Koduntamil prevailed as Paichachi and Vaduku.

Vadam – Vadaku – Vaduku – Vadukam evolution shows the name specifies the direction- North. After it changed from ‘Koduntamil’ to a full-fledged language, Vadukus (East Vaduku-Telugus) called tamil as ‘Aruvam’ (8). ‘Aruva’ Nation in the Northern part of present tamilNadu made them to call so.

Like tamil, Old Kannada also had tamil special alphabets like Zha, Ra (Vallinam) & Na (Idayinam). And Old Teluku (Janu / Accha Teluku) also had Ra (Vallinam).(9) All words of Vaduku are shrinked form of tamil.

For Example, Tamil ‘Kammara palli’ turned ‘Kammara nalli’/ Komara nalli (10). Tholkappiam’s ‘Vaal Kavizhppu’ (a salute to war heroes) turned ‘ Pazh Galachu’ , ‘Vellam paravi’ turned ‘Pellam Paravi’(11). ‘Pellam paravi Ma Balgalachu Kottathu’(Kannada)- an inscription in Pellam paravi. Almost all the words in Vaduku is the Phonetical shrinkage of tamil (Koduntamil). Here I have mentioned one or two by virtue of its presence in inscriptions. In this inscriptions (890 ACE) ‘Nekkunthi Nadu’ – Ner kuntra Nadu, Pulikkurukki- Pulikuruchchi. Kuththarasan- Kutrarasan specify Kananada and tamil words respectively. This one and other root word analysis shows that Vaduku is naturally – phonetically converted form of tamil.

Dr. Surendrababu a tamil-teluku linguistist says that some of the foremost old tamil words should be available in Vaduku (Kannada / Telugu) because tamil grew naturally without much interruption but with gradual change due to dialects and its slang which contributed turning of words in tamil within, whereas Vaduku (Kannada & Teluku) had sudden change due to northern words coming into being, leaving the old words as extinction or obsolete in use UNALTEREDLY. For example, ‘Neel’ was used in Tholkappiam & early Third sankam literature to specify water which turned into ‘Neer’ naturally leaving usage of neel in later third sankam literature. Whereas in Teluku the advent of ‘Jalam’ made ‘Neelu’ keeping its original posture. ‘Avvai’ (tamil) which turned avva –amma in teluku & tamil respectively but in teluku avva is used in some dialects of Rayalseema whereas in tamil it got extinction. Likewise the old tamil words Paraithal, Chepputhal are now used in Malayalam & Telugu respectively. (12)


VADUKUS MOTHERLAND:

In present Karnataka, the land between Kannan Pennai (Krishna) river & Thunkapatthirai river was the motherland of Vadukus. ThaaraVaadu and Belkam (Velakam) districts have red soil. Except this two districts, Northern part of Karnataka has only Black soil (Karisal nilam).(13) Magnesia, Alumina are surplus whereas Phosphorus, Humus are very less which led Vadukus non-paddy agricultural production only. Thus their ancient times went with Mullai (Mountain) and Paalai (desert) life.

That is why, till Maurian King Asokan’s invasion, ploughing tool was not available in Karnataka (14)

Almost all parts of Karnataka has black soil (Karisal Ma-n). That is why it had name as Karunatakam. Vadukas who entered into tamil Nadu later period searched and stayed only in black soil areas (Karum kaadu) and such kind of telugu Vadukus were called as ‘ Karunkattu kaarar’ by people of tamilNadu.

Lot of ‘Ash-mounds’ ( New stone age) have been invented in between Kannan Pennai / Krishna (Kanhabena) (15) and Thunkapaththirai rivers. They were all due to ‘cowdung’ & Goat & Bull wastes. Third sankam literature call them as ‘Kurumbars’/ Aayar / Idayars. Asoka Inscription calls them as ‘Hida Rajas’.(16)

Since, Vadukus were unorganized & ferocious battlers before Common Era, Pandiyan, Chola , Chera and Maurian Army used them in their battles as paid battlers.

‘Kosars’( 17) were west Vadukas and their origin is Kolappur near Goa. ‘Erattar’(18) were a branch of Kosars who turned ‘Maa -rattar / Maraattar’ – Maha Rattirar (Prakrid)-Maharashtras(Sanskrit). Historien Burnell conforms this. They are in Kannada & Telugu as raddi / Reddy respectively.

Kosars were called ‘Nar kosar’ / Nanmozhi Kosar’ by Third sankam literature. Nannul / Tholkappiam explanatory notes says the types of kosars as kannadam, vaduku (Thulu), Kalingam (oriya) & Telugu.(19). Kambaramayanam Payiram says the types of Kosars as Vadakalai (Prakrid), Thenkalai (tamil), Vaduku, Kannadam.

Kosars were truthful to their kings either tamil kings or Maurian kings. That is why they were called ‘Vai-mozhi Kosar’.(truthfull in keeping their words) (20)

In Mathurai Kanchi 508-09 & 771-74, a message about them :

Thalayanankanam cheru ventra Nedunchezhian’s army head was ‘Mohoor Pazhayan Maaran.’ In his army Kosars were leading battlers.

“ Poyya Nallisai Niruththa punaithar
Perum peyar MAARAN THALAIVAN AKA
Kadanthadu VAI VAL Elampal KOSAR
Eyaneri Marabin VAI-MOZHI ketpa” and

« PAZHAYAN MOKOOR Avayakam vilanka
NANMOZHI KOSAR Thontri yanna »

The above shows that Kosar followed Maran’s words in battle and in the court of Maran, Kosar had proudly been & were honoured for their job.

Pittan kotran was army head of Cheran and in their army ‘Elampal Kosar’ (young Kosars) were present.(21) Silappathikaram says about “Kon kilam Kosar’ who were present in Kongu Army.

The Prakrid form of “Vai-mozhi Kosar” is “Saththiya Putthirar” (Tamil -Saththiyam + Puthalvar) and Asokan Inscriptions specify vadukus by this name.

Konku Nadu, Aruva nadu,Kudaku nadu,Erumai nadu (Mahishasur-Mysore : Erumai (Tamil),Mahisham-(Sanskrit) & thulunadu (present parts ranging from Selam to Bangalore- (Venkaalore)-Mysore & Chittur) were tamil speaking areas after Koduntamil changed its course as Vaduku.

Slowly Kosars captured Thulu Nadu and they became kings with Moothur as capital.

In Akananooru 15, 2-7 : this message is mentioned.

“…… Thokai Kavin THULU NATTU anna
Varunkai Vampalaith Thankum panpin
Cherintha Seri Chemmal MOOTHUR”

Then they captured Kudaku Nadu & Erumai Nadu.

Nakkeerar talks about Erumai nadu king in Akananooru 253 : 4-20

“Nera Vanthol VADUKAR PERUMAGAN
Perisai ERUMAI NAL NATTU Ullathai
AYIRIYARU …… ‘’-

In this ‘ayiriyaru’ is present ‘asiriyaru’ which mingles with Thunkapatthirai river.

Thus, Kosa Vadukars emerged as great force to reckon with.

Karunatakas North, Bellari (Velari) & Ananthapur districts became part of ‘Vadukanadu’. It was then called as “Paduka Nadu” (Kannada)Telugus called Karnatakas as ‘Padakavaru’ when telugu became separate language.(22)

KONKU NADU VELIR (TAMILS) – VADUKU MINGLING :

While Vadukus were buffer stock between Maurians and tamil kingdoms, Konku Velir were also buffer stock among tamil three kingdoms.They were all small kings under empires. They were not allowed to become kings of tamil land but became kings of Koduntamil parts. Nachinarkiniyar says that Velirs belongs to kings of other lands.(23). This means except tamilland in other lands they can become kings.

In course of time some of the Velirs mixed with Koduntamil Vadukars.
When Mauriyan empire got down Both Vadukus & Velir created “Andapaada” (Andar Paathai) ‘Satha vahanan (Nootruvar Kannar) Empire. That is why the kings names of anthran empire was either in tamil / Vaduku form parallel with Prahiritic form.

First king name was Simukan. (Vaduku)-sivamukan(tamil). Second king was Kannan(tamil). Third king was Nootruvar Kannaran(tamil -Vaduku), Fourth king was Puli-mai (tamil). Nootruvar kannaran was also called Satha karni (Prahrit)

Velir king ‘Erunko Vel’ was defeated by Nootruvar Kannaran. ‘Erunko Vel’ then came to ‘Thuvarai’ (Thuvara samuththiram). Then one part of his dynasty moved to north and in ‘Vadabi’ Puli-Kesi I (ACE 543-66) created Chalukkian Empire. By the time they became vaduku kannadas.

‘Erunko Vel’s ancestor is ‘Puli Kadi Mal’. This is specified in Purana nooru 201 : 15 as,

“Oliyal Kanni PULIKADI MA-AL”.

KONGAR , KADAMBAR & BANAR :

Kudaku Nadu, Erumai Nadu, Salem and Coimbatore parts were called Kongu Nadu. Silapathikaram specifies them as “Kudaku Kongar”. Sankam literature specifies them as ‘Kangar’(24) North part of that area turned as “Kangar Nadu”. In Kangar Nadu Old Tamils Pulayars turned Kannada Olayars.(25). Present ‘Kongur’ in Tamil Nadu was the capital of Kongars. Then Kongars changed it into Kuvalapuram (Present Kolar gold mines) (26). Cu Seals –Chppedukal- in Kolar (338 ACE) specifies this.

Indian Historiens tell that ‘Kangar Nadu’ had longest surviving dynasty than in any other empire / Nation.(650 Years)

Present Palaru & Thenpennai river valley (Tamil Nadu) was ruled by Panars (East Vadukus / Telugus). They were under ‘Sathavahana Empire’. Vathu Pallava Malla Theva Nandhivarman Cheppedu (Cu) calls this area as “Panar Ezharai Ilakkam”.

This is specified as “Ulaka Edai Kazhi” in Purana nooru 175 : 6-9 :

……… MORIYAR
ThinKathirth Thikiri Thirithara Kuraitha
ULAKA EDAIKAZHI Araivai Nilyiya
Malarvai Mandilam”

In the end of Anthra Empire (300 ACE) Kadambars emerged as force in Central and Some part of Northern Karnataka. They were great sea Farrers in West Coast. They carried out their activities in ‘Thovakkal’ Island. (27)

SOME MORE TAMIL LITERARY EVIDANCES :

1. Mamoolanar, a third sankam poet explains the characteristics of Vadukus who resided near Venkidam ( present Thirupathi) in Akananooru 265 : 12-21.

“Ensilai Ezhileru ……….
MaraAnch Cheerur Marunkil Thoonkum
Chennuthal yanai VENKATATH THAZHEI”

2. In Akananooru 213 : 4-8 : Their battle to rob Bull & Cow mob is detailed.

………PERU-NIRAI
Nanaimuthir Naravin Natpali Kodukkum
Vaalnina Pukavin VADUKAR THEYATHATHU”

3. In Akananooru 211 : 7-8 : Vaduku nation is specified as having language of converted tamil.

“…………………. VENKADATHTHU Umbar
MOZHI PEYAR THEYATHATHU Ayinum”

Here, peyar means ‘Peyarnthathu’ which means ‘changed / converted’.


4. In Akananooru 213 : 1-3 also the land of Vadukus is specified.

“Onku Vellaruvi VENKADATHTHU Umbar”


5. In Akananooru 107 : 11 & 381 : 6-8, Vadukus are symbolized as “Katha Nai Vadukar”(Nai-dog) who had “Wild dogs” with them always. (Just like in Superstar RajiniKanth’s recent film “Chandramuki” in which “Vettai Raja”- Kala-kala-kala Style !, I think this film is remake of some kannada film!)

The sankam verses are,

“Kallaa Neenmozhi KATHA NAI VADUKAR” and

“Nizhalsoontru Unda Niramba Neelidai
Katruri Kudambai KATHA NAI VADUKAR
VIR CHINAM thanintha veruveru kavalai” .

6. In this, ‘Vir Chinam’ specifies their ferocious & unbeatable strength in battle.

7. In Sundarar Thevaram- Thirumurugan Poondi 1, they are specified as

“ Muduku Nariya VADUKAR Vaazh Murugan Poondi Manakar Vai”

8. The Northern border of tamil kingdoms were threatened many times by Vadukas. This is specified in Akanaanooru 31 : 13-15 :

“ Vilalaiththu Unnum Vallan Vazhkai
TAMIZH KEZHU MOOVAR
MOZHI PEYAR THEYATHA Panmalai Eranthe”

Kurumbar / Idayar / Andar were the creaters of Anthran Empire. The Vulnarables of their forests are explained in the above poetry.

9. Kakkai padiniyar’s Yappilakkanam says the northern border of Third sankam times as,

“Vada thisai Marunkin VADUKU Varambaka” .

10.To reach the Nations beyond Venkidam people had to cross lot of small mountains in the Vadukar forests. This is specified in Natrinai 512 : 2- 6 :

“Kadum kural Pambai KATHA NAI VADUKAR
Nedum perum KUNTRAM Neenthi …. »

11. In Akananooru 295 : 13 – 17 the same kind of message above is mentioned. To reach “Kalvar Koman”(Tamil kallar) Pulli’s ( name as per Akananooru 61: 5-16) Venkita nation, people had to cross through Vaduka nations.

“ Pudaiyalam Kazharkal PULLI Kuntrathu
………………..
PizhiAar Makizhar Kali Chiranththu Arkum
MOZHI PEYAR THEYAM Eranthathu Aayinum”

12. In Akananooru 393 : 1-20, the same type of message is mentioned.

“Nirai pala Kuzhiyiya Nedumozhi PULLI
Then Thunku Uyarvarai Nalnattu Umbar
VENKATAM Eranthanar Ayinum”

13. The references about ‘Panars’ are in Akananooru 325 : 16-19 : & 386 4-8 as,

“ NalVel PANAR Nannattu Ullathai”

14. Tamil Border state king (one of Velir) Nannan passed through ‘Vaduku’ Nation. This is specified by Mamoolanar in Akananooru 349 : 3- 14 :
……………………..
“Kallur Pampin Thontrum
CHOL PEYAR THEYATHTHA Suran Eranthorey”

15. A Vaduka ‘Mi-knizhi’ who worked for Nannan killed ‘Athiyan’ - a velir king who worked for Pasumpoon Pandiyan. This is specified in Akananooru 142 : 8-14 :

“Uootaru Marabin Anchuvaru Peyik
Kootethir Konda VAI MOZHI MI-KNIZHI
…………..
Vellaththanai ATHIKAN KONTRU Uvanthu
Olval Amalai Adiya Nalpin”

16. At last ‘Mi-Knizhi’ picked quarrel with Nannan and killed his friend Aayinan also. This is specified in Kurunthokai 73 : 2-5 by poet Paranar as,

“…………………………..NANNAN
Naruma KONTRU Natitil Pokkiya
Ontru MOZHI KOSAR Pola”

17. ‘Ezhiniyathan’- a Velir king’s Nation Kosar cherished well. This is specified in Purananooru 396 : 7-13.

“Nanai Kallin MANAIKOSAR
………………
Valanir Vattratru EZHINIYATHAN”- Here, Vattraru was his nation.

18. Cholas Northern border was ruled by ‘Azhunthoor Vel’. He was also defeated by Kosars. This is specified in Akananooru 216 : 8-15.

19. Maurians invasion on tamil kings was guided by Vadakus. This is specified in Akananooru
281 : 4-12 :

“Muranmiku VADUKAR MUNNURA MORIAR
Thenthisai Mathiram Munniya Varavirku”

20. The army head of Cheran Kothai is Pittan Kottran. In his Army lot of Kosars were there learning ‘Kalari Payattu’ This is specified in ‘Pattina Karikannanar’ s Purananooru 169 : 9-11:

“ELAMBAL KOSAR Vilankupadai Kanmar”

21. Cholan Elanchet cheni got victory over many kings including Maurians and Kalingas. He controlled the nuisances of Vadukas also. This is specified in Akananooru 375 : 10 – 15 & Purananooru 378 : 1-9. as,

“VAMBA VADUKAR Painthalai chavatti” and

“ VADA VADUKAR Val ottiya” respectively


CONCLUSION :

1. Vadukus evolved from Tamils.
2. Vadukus became unavoidable & unconquerable force in India.


We shall see in relevant threads about how they created Vedhic culture.


REFERENCES :

1. page 3 , 2.- page 67, 5 & 6- Page 11 & 12 J. Coggin Brown, Prehistoric Antiquities of India preserved in the Calcutta Museum, edited by Sir John Marshall, Cosmos Publications, New Delhi.
2. See 1.
3. Page 20-21 7- page 21.V.R. Ramachandra Dikshidar, Origin and Spread of Tamils.Page 20-21.
4. page 39, 10- page 41. 13 – page 13-14. Karnataka’s People and their Past, Vol 1. Stone Age to Merchantalism, Dr. Saki
5. See 1
6. See 1
7. See 3
8. ‘Vadamozhi Varalaru’- Kna. Thevaneyap Pavanar Page 26
9. ‘Tamil Ilakkiya Varalaaru’- The.Po. Meenakshi Sundaram, page 75
11. Epigraphia Carnatica, Vol. X, Sp5, Page 343. 24. Page 272.
12. Thiravidar Varalaaru .Dr. Jothi Prakasam about Mr. Surendrababu’s research. page 166.
14. An Introduction to the Study of Indian History, Popular Prakasam, Bombay,1975, page 240, Mr. D.D. Kosambi.
15. Epigraphica Indica, I Vol. XX, Page 79 quoted by- Early History of the Andhra Country, University of Madras, Dr. Gopalachari.
16. Epigraphica Indica, Vol II, page 471 : Rock Edict XIII, the Shabazgrahi Version, quoted by Dr. M.A. Thurai Arankasamy, Sanka kaala Sirappu peyarkal
17. Akananooru 386 : 4-8
18. ARE No 267 of 1943 – 44
19. Nannul Noortpa, Page 272, Mayilainathar Urai,
20. Akananooru 205 : 8-9
21. Purananooru 169 –9
22. Sanka kala Chirappu Peyarkal, Mo.A. Thurai Arankasami. Page 362
23. Patitina palai – Po.Ve. Somasundaranar Urai, Page 66
24. See 11.
25. Tamilar Varalaru by Kna. Thevaneyan, Page 218-219
26. Kurumporai Koman, ‘Aayvu Kalanchiyam’ Part-3 By Kodumudi Shanmuga Prahatham, Page 23-26.
27. Thennattup Porkalankal, Ka. Appaththuraiyar, page 71

f.s.gandhi
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Old 04-25-2006, 03:23 AM   #3
Fegasderty

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Old 04-27-2006, 11:35 PM   #4
softy54534

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Very interesting....thanks for this article.

Plz also post references for your write-up on Kumari Kandam (that was too good too).
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Old 06-14-2018, 11:29 AM   #5
Jordan Berry

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Knowing about Vadukus was really interesting for me and they have some amazing facts and figures in their history. Thanks a lot for posting business law assignment help article and sharing some really good information with us.
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